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BIBLE COMMENTARY

ASSYRIA: was a World-power 900-607 BC and occupied the North part of the Valley; BABYLON: was a world power 606-536 BC and occupied the South part of the Valley; PERSIA : was a world power 536-330 BC and occupied the East boundary of the Valley; EGYPT: was a world power 1900-1200 BC ISRAEL: was nurtured by Egypt in the day of Egypt's power. Egypt power was destroyed by Assyria and Babylon. The two principal centers of population in the Ancient world was the Euphrates Valley and Egypt with Canaan as a highway between the two.

Using the New American Bible you will find in some spots that the numbers are not in order or that verses are missing.

The answer is that the translators have discovered older Biblical manuscripts and more accurate manuscripts that the translators used for the bible that has them in. With the Bible Scholars researching through these manuscripts they discovered over the course of 1500 years some words, phrases, and even sentences may of been added to the Bible either intentionally or accidentally. The verses mentioned were simply not found in the oldest and most reliable manuscripts so they were removed.

It is the most important to remember that the verses or words in question are of minor significance. None of them change in any the the crucial themes of the Bible or counteract any thing in the Bible

It is important to remember, however, that the verses in question are of minor significance. None of them change in any way the crucial themes of the Bible, nor do they have any impact on the Bible’s doctrines—Jesus’ death, burial and resurrection, Christ as the only way of salvation, heaven and hell, sin and redemption, and the nature and character of God. These are preserved intact through the work of the Holy Spirit, who safeguards the Word of God for all generations.

SEPTUAGINT: There wear many Greek speaking Jews in Alexandria where the translation of the Hebrew Old Testament was translate into Greek. Tradition has it that at Prolemy, Philadelphus request (285-247 BC ) seventy Jews skillful linquists were sent to Jerusalem, to Egypt to tanslate the Pentateuch. Then later the rest of the Old Testament books were add and it was called the "Septuagint" Greek was the most common laguage used and this was the most common version used in Jesus' day. The New Testament was written in Greek with the Old Testament quorations comin from the Septuaginat.

Originally wtitten on skin and copied by hand. Hebrew was written different with it being in square characters from right to left with samll dots or signs, variously attached for vowels. The Vowels system was introduced in the six century AD. The official copies being kept in the Temples with many copies being sent to the Synogogs. With the invention of printing the danger of errors were reduced. Then with the results of the work of Scholars in comparing the various manuscripts there is a recognized Hebrew text known as Massoretic.

THE TARGUM: became necessary as the use of Aramaic became prevalent in Palestine. There were Hebrew Old Testament books in oral Translations, parphrasis, Aramaic and interpretations reduced to writings.

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THE OLD TESTAMENT:

The Old Testament begins with man made in the image of God (Gen 1:26) and man being defeated by Satan in the garden (Gen 2:8) The Old Testament was written to tell the story of the Hebrew Nation, telling largely of the events and the exigencies of it's own time though the story there runs expectancy with the prevision of the COMING OF THE ONE MAJESTIC PERSON. This person long before the arrival came to be know as the MESSIAH WHO WOULD RULE AND BLESS THE WHOLE WORLD. In short the Old Testament, especially the books of Kings, prophetic writings are a constant reminder that the afflictions of Israel are results of their doing by turning away from God.

Four distinct stages may be recognized in the O.T. religious development reflected (1) THE NOMACIC STAGE, age of origins and small beginnings, (2) THE AGRICULTURAL STAGE, experienced a syncretism of the nomadic religion with elements contributed by the earlier inhabitants of Palestine. Palestine had already attained to an agricultural mode of life. (3) THE PROPHETIC STAGE: created by the strange mixture of Canaanitish and Hebrew religion and the increasingly complex general culture, raised the religion to a very high level of spiritual and ethical appreciation and emphasis: (4) LEGALISTIC STAGE: It sought to preserve and protect the gains of the past by emphasizing implicit obedience to formal law and the painstaking observance and use of religious forms and institutions.

EPHESIANS AND COLOSSIANS covers the doctrine of the Doctrine of the Church

In the Hebrew Old Testament 1st and 2nd Kings was one book. The Septuagint translators divided them. They cover a period of 400 years approximately 1000 to 600 B.C. 1st Kings open with the Hebrew nation in its glory and with 2nd Kings closes with the nation in ruins.

IMPORTANT OLD TESTAMENT EVENTS

Creation of Adam and Eve (Gen 1:26-27 ; 2:7 , 21-22
Institution of Marriage (Gen 2:23-25)
Fall of Man (Gen 3:6)
Promise of the Redeemer (Gen 3:15)
Mighty World Flood (Gen 6:8)
First Human government (Gen 9:1-19)
The fall of the Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)
Conversion and call of Abraham (Gen 12:1-3)
Giving of the Abraham Covenant (Gen 12:7 ; 13:14-17 ; 15:1-21)
Abraham's marriage to Hager (Gen 16:1-16)
Isaac;s birth (Gen 21:1-8)
Jacob's flight (Gen 28)
Joseph being sold into Egyptian Slavery (Gen 37)
The enslavement of Israel in Egypt (Ex 1)
The Call of Moses (Ex 3:1-10)
The ten plagues (Ex 7-12)
The Passover institution (Ex 12)
The Glory Cloud's appearance (Ex 13:21-22)
The Crossing of the Red Sea (Ex 14)
The giving of the Manna (Ex 16:4)
The institution of the Sabbath (Ex 16:29)
The giving of the Law (Ex 20:1-17)
The Tabernacle is completed. (Ex 40:33-34)
Aaron is anointed (Lev 8:1-12)
The unbelief at Kadesh-Barnea (Num 14)
The Death of Moses (Deut 34:5-8)
Joshua and the children of Israel crossed over the Jordan River into Palestine (Jose 3)
The falling of Jericho (Josh 6)
The death of Joshua (Josh 24:29)
The Marriage of Ruth to Boaz (Ruth 4)
The Philistines capturing the Ark (1st Sam 4)
The Israel rejection of Samuel (1st Sam 8:1-9)
Saul being anointed (1st Sam 9, 10)
Saul being rejected (1st Sam 15:23)
David being anointed (1st Sam 16:13)
David capturing of Jerusalem (2nd Sam 5:9)
David recovering the Ark (2nd Sam 6:15-16)
The giving of the Davidic Covenant (2nd Sam 7:8-17)
Solomon being anointed (1st King 1:39)
Solomon's Temple is completed (1st King 6:38)
The Israeli Civil War (1st King 12)
The deliverance of Joash from murderous Queen Ahaziah (2nd Chronicles 22:10-12)
The Northern Kingdom Assyrian Captivity (2nd Kings 17:6)
The deliverance of Jerusalem from the Assyrians (2nd Kings 19:32-35)
Josiah's Death (2nd Kings 23:29-30)
The Glory Cloud's Departure (Ezek 10:18)
The destruction of the Temple of Solomon (2nd King 25:8-9)
The Babylonian captivity of the Southern Kingdom (2nd
Kings 25:11)
The return under Cyrus' decree (Ezra 1)
The completion of the new temple under Zerubbabel (Ezra 3)
The salvation of the Jews by Esther (Est 4-7)

The Pentateuch, or the Law

Book of Genesis Creation and the establishment of the covenant relationship
Book of Exodus The people of Israel delivered from slavery in Egypt
Book of Leviticus   The ceremonial law
Book of Numbers God's people wandering in the wilderness
Book of Deuteronomy Before the people occupy the promised land the second giving of the law by Moses

The History of Israel.

Book of Joshua   The capture and settlement of the Promised Land
Book of Judges  The nation of Israel is rescued by a series of judges, or military leaders
Book of Ruth A beautiful story of God's love and care

First Book of Samuel

Second Book of Samuel   

The early history of Israel, including the reigns of Saul and David

First Book of Kings  

Second Book of Kings

A political history of Israel, focusing on the reigns of selected kings from the time of Solomon to the captivity of the Jewish people by Babylon.

First Book of Chronicles

Second Book of Chronicles

A religious Israel's history, covering the same period of time as 2 Samuel and 1st and 2nd Kings
Book of Ezra The return of the Jewish People from captivity in Babylon
Book of Nehemiah The rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem after the exiles returned from Babylon
Book of Esther    God's care for His people under Gentile rule

THE APOCRYPHA

Book of Tobit      
Book of Judith     
First Book of Maccabees       
Second Book of Maccabees  
Book of Sirach  
Book of Baruch  

THE BOOKS OF WISDOM WRITING

           

Job    An examination of the problems of human suffering and evil
Psalms The song book or hymnal of ancient Isiael
 Proverbs Wise sayings and observations designed to develop proper attitudes and behavior
Ecclesiastes A philosophical description of the emptiness of life without God
The Song of Songs A love song portraying the beauty of a human love relationship as a symbol of divine love.

THE BOOKS OF MAJOR PROPHETS

Book of Isaiah A Glorified and Suffering Servant
 Book of Jeremiah The Lord Our Righteousness
Book of Lamentations Man of Sorrows
Book of Ezekiel A prophecy of judgment during the Babylonian Captivity
Book of Daniel About the end time a book of prophecy

THE BOOKS OF MINOR PROPHETS

           

Book of Hosea    A message of Israel's condemnation followed by God's all powerful forgiveness
Book of Joel A prediction of foreign invasion as a form of judgment by God
Book of Amos  A prophecy of eight pronouncements of judgment against Israel
Book of Obadiah A book prophesying the total destruction of Edom
Book of Jonah A reluctant prophet who led Nineveh to repentance
Book of Micah A prediction of judgment and a promise of Messianic restoration
Book of Nahum A prophecy of the destruction of Nineveh.
Book of Habakkuk A prophet who questioned God and praised His approaching judgment against Judah
Book of Zephaniah  A prediction of destructive judgment followed by tremendous blessing
Book of Haggai A call to rebuild the Temple after the return from Babylon
Book of Zechariah A Messianic prophecy calling for the completion of construction on the Temple
Book of Malachi Messianic blessing after a prophecy of destruction

DATE OF JESUS'S BIRTH

Competent authorities sometimes are as far as ten years apart in the dating the same events. The discoveries of archaeological material will bring us closer together to form one opinion. Many of the Old Testament writers didn't thing it was important to be real specific. The Romans had no uniformed method of dating and the Jews based their calculations of the festal calendar upon ordinary observations of the phases of the moon.

The Gospels covered four areas of Jesus life. Birth, Baptism, Ministry and His Death.

The Roman Monk Dionysius Exiguus in the sixth century date Jesus' birth 1 A.D. it was based upon a miscalculation.

Matthew furnished us with four date that we can use. (1) before 4 B.C. "Herod died" (2) 2:16 age limits of the children ordered slain-ed by Herod making it 6 B.C. "two years old and under" (3) 2:2 at the 7 B.C. calculated by the astronomer Kepler in which some have seen conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn "The Star" (4) 2:19-23 without indication of its length residence in Egypt.

Luke in Chapter 2 verses 1-5 dated the birth of Jesus using a census ordered in 6 A.D. by the Roman Emperor Augustus when Quirinus was governor of Syria but that census was ten years after Herod's death. It would not seem probable that Luke antedated this census in Act 5:37. Did Luke confuse the name of one census with another one, one that took place under Saturninus, who was governor of Syria about 9-6 B.C.

"New light on the question has come from recent discoveries in archeology to which Sir William M Ramsay has called attention in his words, Was Christ Born at Bethlehem? and The Bearing of Recent Discoveries on the Trustworthiness of the N.T. There is evidence that Quirinus carried on a military expedition against the Homogenates, a tribe in the Clinicia Taurus country, while he held official position in Syra in the lifetime of Herod, between 9-6 B.C This according to Ramsay, would meet all the requirements of Luke's statement, and he chooses for the date 6 B.C A glance at the conspectus will reveal how all the extremes and the shades between them are represented. Probably the most satisfactory date is 6 B. C.

For the month and the day of the birth there are no data available. The earliest source for December 25 is Hippopotamus, about 200 A.D. " page 874 of THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT by Professor ISMAR J. PERITZ.

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JESUS' PUBLIC LIFE

Jesus' public life was spent mostly in Galilee, It is recorded that he made five visits to Jerusalem, three retirements for publicity to the region of Tyre and Sidon; and Caesarea-Philippi Then his visit to the wilderness of Ephraim to await his death.

Fall or Early Winter of A. D. 26: Baptism in the lower Jordan, Temptation in nearby Wilderness, First Disciples in lower Jordan, and the First Miracle in Cana.
Passover in A.D. 27 about 8 months: (John 3:22-36) Cleanses Temple in Jerusalem, Early Judea Ministry, in Lower Jordan
December: begins 2 years Return through Samaria and begins His Galilean Ministry.
Passover? A.D.28: Visits Jerusalem (John 5:1)
Summer: The Twelve Chosen and the Sermon on the Mount
February? A.D. 29: The twelve sent forth, John the Baptist beheaded, the twelve returns.
Passover: the 5000 Fed
October: Visits Jerusalem (John 7:2, 10)
November?: The transfiguration
December?: close of His Galilean Ministry (Luke 9:51) Again in Jerusalem (John 10:22) Later for about 4 months His Judea and Perean Ministry
Passover A.D. 30: Crucifixion and Resurrection

Total time about three and half years

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THE NEW TESTAMENT

The Gospel Stage opens with the announcement in the Temple of God (Luke 1:11-20) in the image of man (John 1:14) and ends with the ascension of the Son of God (Luke 24:51) It covers a period of approximately thirty-five years.

Most people believe that Jesus had a three years span for his ministry. John list three passover in John 2:12; 6:4 ; and 11:55 with most people pointing toward these verses supporting the three year ministry for Jesus. Jn 5:1 has a unnamed feast and this is where others get a four year ministry. First feast being the Temples cleansing to the last one being the Passion Week. Also, those who claim for a four year ministry that too much would be compressed in the last six months of His Ministry.

EPHESIANS AND COLOSSIANS covers the doctrine of the Church, ROMANS covers doctrines of Justification, sanctification and JUDE covers doctrine of Apostasy, PHILEMON covers Christian Forgiveness, HEBREW Covers Priesthood of Christ. THE FOUR GOSPELS covers the Life of Christ. 1st and 2nd PETER covers practical Christian Services. 1st , 2nd and 3rd JOHN covers Love, 1st and 2nd TIMOTHY & TITUS covers advice to Pastors and Deacons.

IMPORTANT EVENTS OF JESUS LISTED IN THE BIBLE.

Worship by the Wise men MT 2:1-12
Flight into Egypt Mt 2:13-23
His Baptism Mt 3:13-17
His Temptation Mt 4:1-11
The Choice of the Twelve Mt 10:1-4
The Imprisonment and Execution of John Mt 14:1-12
Peter's Great Confession Mt 16:13-20
The Transfiguration Mt 17:1-13
The Triumphal Entry Mt 21:4-9
Weeping over Jerusalem Mt 23:37-39 Lk 19:41
The Resurrection Mt 28:1-7
Appearances Mt 28:9
Appearances Mt 28:17
The Triumphal Entry Mk 11:7-10
Appearances Mk 16:9
Appearances Mk 16:14
Adoration by the Shepherds Lk 2:8-20
Dedication in Jerusalem Lk 2:21-38
Temple Visit at Twelve Lk 2:41-50
The Triumphal Entry Lk 19:35-38
The Walk to Emmaus Lk 24:13
Appearances Lk 24:34
The Ascension Lk 24:50His Birth Lk 2:1-7
Introduction by John Jn 1:29
First Temple cleaning Jn 2:13-25
Conversion of Nicodemus Jn 3:1-21
The Triumphal Entry Jn 12:12-19
In the Upper Room Jn 13-14
In Gethsemane Jn 18:1-11
His Arrest and Trials Jn 18:12-19:15
The Crucifixion Jn 19:16-18

THE CHRIST OF GOD (FOUR BOOKS)

MATTHEW-Author Matthew
MARK-Author Mark
LUKE-Author Luke
JOHN-Author John

THE CHURCH OF GOD (ONE BOOK)

Acts-Author Luke

THE CORRESPONDENCE OF GOD (TWENTY TWO BOOKS)

Galatians- Author Paul; 1st Thessalonians Author Paul; 2nd Thessalonians - Author Paul ; 1st Corinthians - Author Paul; 2nd Corinthians - Author Paul
Romans- Author Paul; Hebrew- Author Paul; Ephesians- Author Paul; Colossians - Author Paul; Phi lemon - Author Paul; Philippians- Author Paul;
1st Timothy - Author Paul; 2nd Timothy - Author Paul; Titus- Author Paul; 1st John-Author John; 2nd John-Author John; 3rd John - Author John
Revelation - Author John; 1st Peter - Author Peter; 2nd Peter-Author Peter; James - Author James; Jude - Author Jude

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BAPTISM MEANS TO IDENTIFY WITH:

  1. MARK 1:4 BAPTISM BY JOHN THE BAPTIST, FORGIVENS OF SINS
  2. MATTHEW 3:15 BAPTISM OF JESUS WITH WATER BY JOHN
  3. MATTHEW 3:16 BAPTISM OF JESUS WITH HOLY SPIRIT BY THE FATHER
  4. MATTHEW 20:22 ; LUKE 12:50 BAPTISM OF SINS UPON CHRIST AT CALVARY
  5. MATTHEW 3:11 BAPTISM OF THE HOLY SPIRIT UPON BELIEVERS AT PENTECOST
  6. MATTHEW 3:11, 12. 30 BAPTISM OF GOD'S WRATH UPON SINNERS DURING THE TRIBULATION.

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THE GOSPELS

Gospel according to Matthew Christ presented as the fulfillment of Old Testament Messianic Prophecy
Gospel according to Mark Probably the earliest of the gospels, focusing on Christ's ministry
Gospel according to Luke Fullest biography of Christ, focusing on His ministry of Salvation and on His perfection
Gospel according to John Presents Christ as the divine Son of God the most symbolic gospel.
Acts of the Apostles The expansion of the early church history

THE NEW TESTAMENT EPISTLES (LETTERS)

Letter to the Romans ==The Lord Our Righteousness    An explanation of the Christian faith for both Gentiles and Jews, addressed to the church at Rome
First Letter to the Corinthians ==Our Resurrection Dealing with problems among Christians instructions to the Church at Corinth
Second Letter to the Corinthians ==Our Comforter   Paul's explanation and defense of his apostleship
Letter to the Galatians ==End of the Law The necessity of salvation by divine grace rather tan the law
Letter to Ephesians ==Head of the Church To the church at Ephesus a letter explaining the believer's position in Christ
Letter to Philippians ==Supplier of Every Need To the Church at Philippi a joyful letter telling of Paul's conquering faith during His imprisonment
Letter to the Colossians ==Fullness of the God Head   Written to the Church of Colossae an account of the supremacy of Christ
First Letter to the Thessalonians ==Comes FOR His Church To the Church at Thessalonica instructions about the coming of the Lord
Second Letter to the Thessalonians ==Comes WITH HIS Church
First Letter to Timothy ==He is the Mediator To the young pastor at Ephesus manuals of leadership
Second Letter to Timothy ==Bestower of Crowns
Letter to Titus ==Our Great God and Savior Written to a young pastor at Crete a manual of Christian conduct for Church leaders.
Letter to Philemon ==Payer of Our Dept For a runaway slave an appear for Christian unity and forgiveness.

THE GENERAL EPISTLES (LETTERS)

Letter to Hebrews ==Rest of the Faith and fulfiller of Types   Addressed to Jewish believers a presentation of Jesus Christ
Letter of James ==The Lord drawing near  For applied Christianity practical instructions
 First Letter of Peter ==Vicarious Sufferer To suffering Christians encouragement and comfort from Peter
Second Letter of Peter ==Lord of Glory Warning against false teachers by Peter
First Letter of John==The Way A reminder of the full humanity of Christ by John
Second Letter of John ==The Truth A letter of encouragement and approval from John
Third Letter of John == The Life Personal note of appreciation to Gaius from John
Letter of Jude A strong warning against false teachers
Book of Revelation ==Our Security, Loin of the Tribe of Judah: Lamb of God, bright and Morning Star, Kings of Kings, Lord of Lords God's ultimate triumph and an encouraging prophecy of the final days.