A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M
  N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z


AARON -- Aaron was the middle child with Miriam and Moses Exod 4:14 and the son of Amram and Jochebed. Ex 6:20 7:7 15:20 Aaron was an eloquent speaker unlike his brother Moses. Aaron acted as Moses' spokesman Exod 4:13-16 when the two appeared before Pharaoh in Egypt. This was for the plead for the release of the Hebrew people. Ex 4:14-31 , 5:1-4 Aaron was Moses' companion and had a limited part in the story of the plagues. Ex 8:8 , 9:27 , Aaron is associated in the traditions concerning Israel's wondering in the desert. While Joshua fought the Amalekites Ex 17:10-12 with Hur, Aaron supported Moses' outstretched arms in the Mountains. , Aaron shared Moses' meal with Jethro his father-in-law Ex 18:12 with all of the elders of Israel. Aaron and Hur was entrusted with the care of the people while Moses was on the Mountain for forty days, through his weakness he is partly responsible for the idolatry when the people constructed the golden Calf. Ex 32:1-4 , 15-24 God justified Moses and punished Miriam when Aaron sided with Miriam over the Cushite woman Num 12:1 Aaron became the first high priest of Israel Exod 28:1 and then his sons inherited the position from their father Num 3:32 with them being found more than three hundred times in the Old Testament books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. Because of Aaron unfaithfulness he was not allowed to enter the promised land Num 20:6-12 Heb 5:4 ; 7:11

AARON'S ROD -- In Exodus and Numbers, Aaron's Rod is used to convince Pharaoh of the divine mission from God that Moses and Aaron was on. Ex 7:9-10 When the magicians of the Egyptian transformed their rods into serpents, Aaron threw his rod to the ground and it became a serpent that ate up all the other serpents of the Egyptian's magicians serpents. Upon orders from Moses Aaron struck the water of the river and it changed into blood. Ex 7:17 then made frogs swarm all over the land Ex 8:5 Aaron struck the ground and the dust changed into mosquitoes or gnats. Ex 8:12
A way for God to stop those complaining against the priesthood of the house of Levi, which Aaron's branch represented. Aaron's branch among all the other branches representing the twelve tribes was the only branch that produced flowers. Aaron's branch was then place before the Ark as a sign that God had chosen the tribe of Levi. Hebrew 9:4 records that Aaron's branch was kept with the ark of the covenant which was kept in the Holy of Holies.

AARONITES -- Aaron's descendants who were part of the priestly tribe of Levi. A large force of Aaronites helped David in the fight against King Saul. 1st Chron 12:27-28

AB -- Equivalent to our modern August it is the fifth month of the Hebrew calendor. Not specifically named but referred to in Num 33:38

ABADDON/APOLLYON (a-bad'dun) -- Means "destruction" in Hebrew, and used to characterize the angel of the bottomless pit Rev 9:11 it was the dead in the Old Testament (Job 26:6 Prov 15:11 ; Ps 88:12) It cam to mean a part of Sheol to which sinners were sent to in rablinical literature. Term in Revelation 9:11 has been personified to "the Angel of the Abyss"

ABAGTHA -- Served the Persian King Abasuerus as chamberlains as one of the Seven eunuchs (Esth 1:10)

ABAN RIVER --A river of Syria mentioned by Naaman, the leper as more favorable for bathing than the Jordan River, it flowed through the city of Damascus II Kings 5:12

ABANA (ab'-a-na) ABANAH -- Today it is called Barada and it is one of the rivers which cuts accross the region of Damascus. In 2nd Kings 5:12 Naaman the Syrian mentioned it in his answer to the prophet Elisha who he went to be curied of leprosy. He was told by Elisha to go was himself in the Jordan Seven times.

ABARIUM (ab'-a-rim) Mountains that form the eastern boundary of the valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea. They are extreme west of Moab. Before entering Palestine the Israelites camped there. Num 33:47 Before his death Deut 32:49 Moses looked over the promise land from on of its peaks. Mount Nebo. The mountain called Abarim is mentioned in Jeremeah 22:20

ABBA -- Given to the Christian at baptism to inspired to address God with this special name. Rom 8:15 ; Gal 4:6 Abba means father so in popular language in Aramaic form children when addressing their fathers would use Abba. As the son of God, Jesus adopted this expression when he was praying to God in Gethsemane. Matt. 14:36 Jesus taught the disciples to do the same Luke 11:11 The Jews of the time did not use Abba The name of the Father hood of God was reserved and formalistic terms. Paul used it when expressing the Christian's sonship with God the Father Rom 8:15


ABDON -- (1.) Abdon was one of the minor judges, Judges 12:13-15 assert that he was one of the forty sons of Hillel of Pirathon. He judged over Israel for 8 years, upon his death he was buried in Pirathon. In Judges 12:13-15 it is accorded that he rode on 70 asses, betoken great wealth with 40 sons and 30 grandsons. King Josiah sent Abdon, son of Micah with four others the prophetess in Jerusalem. They were to inquire concerning the words of the book of the law which had just been found found during a restoration of the Temple (624 B.C.) II Kings 22:12

ABDON -- Is also the name of three other biblical personages (1) the sone of Jeiel and his wife Maacah that was a distant ancestor of Saul ( 1st Chron 8:30 ; 9:36) (2) Minister of the court of Josiah of Judah ( 2nd Chron 34:20) (3) Descendant of Benjamin ( 1st Chron 8:23)

ABDON -- A name of a Levite city of the region assigned to the tribe of Asher (Josh 21:30)

ABARIM -- East of the Jordan River in Moab a rugged mountain range which Moses viewed the Promised Land before his death. Deut 32:48-50

ABED-NEGO/AZARIAH -- Azariah, a young prince of Judah who was a captive in Babylon along with his three friends: Mishael, Hananiah, and Daniel. After becoming a captive the four was given a Babylonian name and Azariah's was Abednego. King Nebuchadnezzar had a golden image made and set up in the plain of Dura, For refusing to bow down and worship the golden image Abednego was thrown into the fiery furnace and God protected him with him coming out unharmed Daniel 1-3 ; 3:12-97 ; 1st Mac 2:59


ABEL-BETH-MAACAH (maj'-a-kah) -- In northern Palestine, north of Lake Huleh, a city of David's kingdom. After his abortive attempt at revolt against David, Sheba took refuge there. (2nd Sam 20:14-18) It is also mentioned among the cities conquered by Ben-haded of Damascus with Baaska King of Israel (1st Kings 15:20 ; 2nd Chron 16:4) and then by Tiglathpilse III in the time of Pekah (2nd Kings 15:29)

ABEL-KERAMIN (ker'-a-min) A locatiy of eastern Jornda, probably in the district of the present Amman. Jephthah severely defeated the Ammonites (Judges 11:32-33) harassing them from Aroer through twenty towns all the way to Minnith and Abel-keramin.

ABEL-MEHOLAH (ma-ho'-lah) -- On the eastern frontier of the fifth district a city of Transjordania according to the administrative division introduced by Solomons (1st Kings 4:12) Again the name occurs in the account of the Gideon against the Midianites campaign (Judges 7:22) It being the birth place of Elisha (1st Kings 19:16) is its claim to fame. Where also he was designed to be the successor to the prophet (1st Kings 19:19-21)

ABIA -- Reads in Jesus' genealogy according to Matthew 1:7 as a Greek form of the name of King Abijah

ABIAH -- A corrupt judge of Israel and a son of Samuel. Abiah and his brother Joel's dishonesty led the people to ask Samuel to appoint a king to rule the nation. Ist Sam 8:2-5

ABIATHAR -- Under David a high priest who remained faithful to the King during Absalom's rebellion II Sam 15:24-35 Solomon later banished him from the royal court for supporting Adonijah as king (1st King 1:7-25 ; 2:22-35) Of the wholesale slaughters of the priest of Nob ordered by Saul, he was the only surviv or. (1st Sam 22:20) A descendant of Ithamar son of Aaron a prieswt and son of Ahimeleih of the family of Eli (1st Kings 2:27) Upon fleeing to David he took the Ephod with him. (1st Sam 23:6) During the period of his disagreement with Saul Abiathar was David's priest (1st Sam 3:7-8 ; 23:8-12) He appears in the list of the ministers of the king as priest and counsellor after the conquest of Jerusalem. (2nd Sam 20:25 ; 1st Chron 15:11 ; 27:34) Throughout the rebellion of Absalom he remained loyal to David. During David's flight together with Zadok and Abiathar wanted to accomany David and bring him the Ark, but David refused him. David order them to remain on in Jerusalem with it. (2nd Sam 15:24-29) Abiathar took the side of Adonijah against Solomon who was supported by Zadok (1st Kings 1:6-7) in the contention over the succession of David. Upon Solomon succeeing to the Throne he banished Abiathar to Anathoth, for the service given to his father, David sparing his life in gratitued. (1st Kings 2:26)

ABIB/NISAN -- It is equivalent to our modern April, and was known as Nisan after the Babyloniah Exile. (Esther 3:7) It was the time when barley opened (Exodus 13:4) and was the first month of the Hebrew year.

ABIEL -- King Saul's Grand Father and the father of Kish (1st Sam 9:1 ; 14:51)

ABIEZER (ab'-i-ee'-zer) --


ABIHU -- One of four of Aaron's sons. Abihu and his brother was destroyed by fire from God for offering "strange fire" or a forbidden sacrifice. Lev 10:1-7


ABILENE -- During the ministry of John the Baptist this was a province of Syria that was governed by the tetrarch Lysanias. Luke 3:1-2


ABINOAM -- (a-bin'-o-am) Father of Barak and a son of Saul 1st Sam 31:2 who over came the Canaaite King Sisera with the prophetess Deborah Judg 4-5

ABIRAM -- In the wilderness a rebel who was against Moses and died in an earthquake becasuse of his disobedience Num 16:1-33

ABISHAG -- As a young woman she served David as his nurse in his old age I Kings 1:1-15 Solomon killed David's son Adonijah for desiring to marry her after David's death I Kings 2:13-25

ABISHAL -- David's army deputy commander II Sam 10:9-10 He was loyal to David during Absalom's rebellion II Sam 16:9-12 He also killed a giant to save David's life. II Sam 21:16-17

ABITAL -- ( a-by'-tal) David's wife and mother of his son Shephatiah who was born at Hebron II Sam 3:2-5 1st Chr 3:3

ABIVD -- (A-BY'-UD) An ancestor of Jesus in Matthew, son of Zerubbabel

ABLUTION -- Ceremonial washing of a person's clothing and his body to make them pure. In the Old Testament law such washing was commanded Exod 40:12-13

ABNE R -- Saul's army commander in Chief. David was introduced to King Saul Ist Sam 17:55-58 by Abner and then established Saul's son, Ish-bosheth as king after Saul's death. II Sam 2:8-10 Then he shifted his loyalty to David and persuaded all the other tribes to shift their locality to David's leadership II Sam 3: 16-21 At David's command Abner was buried with full honer, although he was killed by David's commander, Joab II Sam 3:27-39

ABOMINATION -- Considered something repulsive by the Hebrews (1) Heathen idolatry Deut 7:25-26 (2) Blemished animal sacrifices Deut 17:1 (3) Sexual transgressions Lev 18 (4) Child sacrifice Deut 12:31 (5) Practice of witchcraft, spirit ism and magic Deut 18:9-12 These were also regarded as an abomination to God Lev 18:26

ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION -- Antiochus Epiphanes' action in sacrificing a pig in the Jewish temple in about 165 BC. This is considered fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy Dan 9:24-27 Matt 24:15

ABRAHAM/ABRAM -- They were born with the names of Abram and Sarai but God changed it to Abraham and Sarah, Gen 17:5-16 and as a covenant sign established circumcision Gen 17:6-27 At the couples old age Gen 21:1-5 Isaac was born to fulfill the covenant through Abraham and Sarah Gen 17:20-21 ; Gal 4:22-31 God changed Abraham name from Abram when he promised Abraham again that he would be the father of a multitude Genesis 17:5 and the father of the nation of Israel PS 105:6 , 9 Abraham was the youngest son of Terah, Terah lived in the city of Ur in ancient Babylonia. Abraham married Sarah Gen 11:28-31. Abraham and Sarah was promised a son Gen 15:1-21 ; 17:21 Because of their age Sarah urged Abraham to father Ishmael by Sahah's servant Hagar Gen 16:1-4 , 15 Abraham was called by God to leave his homeland Haran for a "Land that I will shew thee" Gen 12:1-5 God made a covenant with Abraham that through him all nations would be blessed Gen 12:2-3 Abraham's descendants was promised the land of Canaan Gen 12:7 ; 13:14-18 and go to Palestine where he moved with all his family and possessions. There he had many sons but Isaac was favored above all others. His key-note was in faith in God. Genesis 11:26--25:10 Abraham was tested by God by being asked to sacrifice Isaac Gen 22:1-13 Abraham started to sacrifice Isaac but was stopped by God. God again blessed Abraham Gen 22:16-18 Abraham was buried beside Sarah near Hebron at the age of 175 years old. Gen 25:7-10 Abraham remains a model for us all by his righteousnesses and faith. Gen 26:24 ; PS 47:9 ; Isa 41:8 Who ever shares a like faith in Christ Abraham is viewed as a spiritual father. Matthew 1:1 , 3:9 ; Rom 11:1 ; Gal 3:6-9

ABRAHAM'S BOSOM -- This is used as a symbolic expression for the blissful state after death. Luke 16:22 Upon their death the Jews believe they join their forefathers, particularly "father Abraham" Gen 15:15 while beliving they are separated by a deep abyss from the condemmed. The custom at the time was that the quest of honor at the tale was placed beside the host so when he reclined he would be leaning back and restin his bead on the host's breast John 13:25

ABRAM -- God changed his name to Abraham upon making a covenant with Abram (Gen 17:1-9) God did this to show Abram that he was going to make him "The father of a host of nations" (Gen 17:5) both forms or names mean the same. "The ezalted is my father (God)"

ABRONAH -- (A-bro'-nah) North of Ezion-gebar Num 33:34-35 Under Moses it was a stopping place of the Israelitles enroute to Canaan.

ABSALOM/ABISHALOM -- Absalom was King David's handsome son. II Sam 3: 3 He was a fugitive for three years for killing his brother, Amnon for mulesting their sister Tamar II Sam 13:22-33. Absalom seized Jerusalem when he conspired against David II Sam 15:1-29 Absalom conspired against his father to seize the throne after his return to Jerusalem. After massing an army against David II Sam 17:24-26 During a battle Joah, David's commander killed Absalom while he hung from a tree that his long beautiful hair was tangled in II Sam 18:9-18 David loved him greetly and mourned grievously at his death. .II Sam 15:1-29 ; 18:9-18 Despite their estrangement David love his son and mourned greatly for him. II Samuel 13-18

ABSTINENCE -- When we refrain or stay away from eating or drinking harmful substances or participating in sinful acts Nazarites and Priests abstained from strong drink Lev 10:9 Num 6:1-4 All Christians were advised to abstain or stay away from fornication and idolatry Acts 15:20 Paul believed that everyone should abstained from any practices that might offend a weak brother Rom 14:21

ABUBUS -- (a-boo'-bus) The father of Ptolemy who murdered Simon the Maccabee 1st Mac 16:16

ABYSS/BOTTOMLESS PIT -- In the book of Revelation it indicating the place whe re Satan dwells Rev 9:1-2 , 11

ACCAD (AKKAD) Nimrod, a descendant of Noah built this fortified city. Gen 10:8-19

ACCHO/ACRE (ACCO) -- Near Mount Carmel in the territory of Asher a coastal ci ty. Judg 1:31 In the New Testament it is the same city called Ptolemais Acts 21:7 It is called Acre today.

ACCO -- In the bay with the same name, eight miles north of Mt Carmel, a port city on the c oast of Palestine. In Judges 1:31-32 it is mentioned as part of the territory of Asher. it occurs sometime in the history of the Maccabees as one of the cities against them under the name of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (283-246 B.C.) Kine of Egypt (1st Maccabeus 5:15 there were vareous meetings between Jonathan Maccebeus and the Syrianauthorities (1st Mac 10:51-56 ; 11-21-24) In the last meeting the Jewist Chieftain was imprisioned.

ACCOUNTABILITY -- The biblical principle that each one of us as a person is answerable to God and we are responsible for his only actions. Rom 14:12

ACELDAMA (AKELDAMA, HAKELDAMA) -- The name means "field of blood" Near Jerusalem a field purchased with the money Judas was paid to betray Jesus Acts 1:15-19 Akeldama: NIV Hakeldama: NRSV

ACHAIA -- South of the gulf of Corinth a province of Greece Acts 18:12 At the time of Paul missions the government was being filled by Galli, brother of Seneca. It had been conquered by the romans in 146 B.C. (Acts 18:12) Paul visited the province in Acts 17:15; 18:18 and the third apostolic journey (Act 19:21) Achaia's Christians contributed to their impoverished brethren at Jerusalem Rom 15:26 Achaia's Christians were commended by Paul II Cor 11:10

ACHAICUS -- Paul was visited by this Christian from the city of Corinth I Cor 16:17-18

ACHAN/ACHAR -- Under Joshua a warrior who was stoned to death for withholding the spoils of war Josh 7:16-25 Achar: I Chron 2:7

ACHBOR -- King Josiah sent this official to consult the prophetess Huldah concerning the Book of Laws found in the Temple (2nd Kings 22:12, 14)

ACHISH -- While David was fleeing from King Saul this Philistine king of the city of Gath provide refuge to him. I Sam 21:10-15 ; 27:5-7

ACHME THA (ECBATANA) -- The empire of the Medes' Capital City and later one of the capitals of the Persian Empire Ezra 6:2

ACHOR -- ( ay'-kor ) Forming one of the Northern bouncaries of the territory of the tribe of Judah (Josh 15:7) It was the name of the valley south west of Jericho. Having taken spoils from Jericho which were destined to anathema or total destruction (Josh 7:24-26 ) Achan was stoned.

ACHSAH (ak'-sah) At the time of the conquest of Palestine by the Israelites Othniel was given Caleb's daughter in marrage for the conquest of the city of Kiriath-sephir (Debir) (Judges 1: 12-15)

ACHSHAPH -- Captured by Joshua a royal Canaanite City Josh 11:1 ; 12:7 , 20

ACHZIB -- A village in Galilee (Josh 19:29) ; (Judg 1:31) A city of Judah (Josh 15:44)

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES -- A period of about thirty-five years this book in the New Testament traces the expansion and development of the early church from the Jesus' ascension to Paul' imprisonment in Rome. Acts of the Apostles was written by Luke as a sequel to his Gospel and addressed to Theophilus Luke 1:3-4 ; Acts 1:1-2 Accordance with the Great Commission of Jesus Acts shows clearly how the Christian witness spread. Acts 1:8 (1) In Jerusalem Acts 1:1-8:3 (2) Throughout Judea and Samaria Acts 8:4-12:25 (3) To the rest of the World Acts 13:1-28:31

ADADAH (ad'-a-dah) A town in the extreme Judah Southern territy (Josh 15:22)

ADAH (ay'-dah) --

ADAIAH (a-day'-yah) --

ADALIA (a-day'-li-a) -- A son of Ltaman the Vizer of King Abasuerus (Esth 9:8)


ADAM- God place him in the Garden of Eden after he was created by God in his own likeness, as the crown of all creation. Gen 1:26-27 Adam was an upright and intelligent being Gen 2:19-20 Fist worker Gen 2:8 , 15 First Husband Gen 2:18-25, Received God's law Gen 2:16-17 First Sinner Gen 3:6 Broken fellowship with God Gen 3:8 Brought god's curse on him and mankind Gen 3:14-19 Eviction from Eden Gen 3:22-24 Genesis 2:15 ; 5:5 tells of Adam's failing of his temptation, the creation of his wife, Eve, his descendants and his naming of all the beasts and living creatures. Adam had Cain and Abel ; Gen 4:1-2 ; Seth is born ; Gen 4:25 ; Other children are born ; Gen 5:3-4 ; Adam did at the age of 930 years old. ; Gen 5:5 Adam represents the last and dying condition of all unrepentant sinners of the world. ; Rom 5:12-18 ; Ist Cor 15:22 Christ is the second Adam who delivers us from the curse of sin and death ; Rom 5:14-19 ; Ist Cor 15:22

ADAMANT -- Possibly corundum, a precious stone. Ezek 3:9 ; Zech 7:12

ADAR (ay'-dar) -- Roughly equivalent to parts of our modern February and March it is the twelfth month of the Jewish year. On the thirteenth day of this month Haman ordered the massacre of the Jews. Esther 3:13

ADASA -- (ad'-a-sa) where Judas Macaabeus defeaed the selocid army commanded by Nicanor ; A town located between Jerusalem and Beth-horon.

ADBEEL -- Chieftain of a clan (Gen 25:13) and of his twelve sons the third of Ishmael sons

ADDEUS AND MARIS LITURGY OF, ORIENTAL LITURGY.-- Sometimes addigned to the Persian group other times to the Syrian groups.

ADDI -- In Luke 3:28 an ancestor of Jesus.

ADDRESSES, ECCLESIASTICAL -- Rules as to what is customary and fitting in the matter of ecclesiastical correspondence

ADELAIDE, SAINT OR ADELHID -- The widow of Othok she died in 999.

ADEODATUS i, POPE,, SAINT -- Also known as Pope Adeodatus I,d. 618.

ADEODATUS -- Son of St. Augustine (372-388)

ADEODATUS(ii), POPE SAINT- Opponent of Monothelitism a Roman Monk brief article d. 676 To distinguish him from his predecess ST. Deusdedit who was also called Adeodatus he was called Adeodatus II

ADJURATION -- An urgent demand to desist from doing something or a urgen demand made upon someone to do something which is rendered more solemn by coupling it with the name of God.

ADMAH -- This city of the Pentapolis took part of the alliance against the Kings of the East (Gen 14) It is located near the Dead Sea, one of the four cities destroyed with Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen 10:19 ; Deut 29:23)

ADMATHA -- An official in King Ahasuerus' court (Esth 1:14)

ADONAL -- The name God in Hebrew, translated "Lord" Ezek 11:8

ADONI-BEZEK (a-dor'ny-beez-ek) Defeated by the tribe of Judah a Cahaanite King of Bezek. Upon his escape when he was overtaken his big toes and thumbs were cut off. A punishment that he had done to severlty Kings. He was taken to Jerusalem and where he died (Judges 1:5-7)

ADONIJAH -- A rival of Solomon for the throne and David's fourth son. II Sam 3:4 ; 1st Kings 1:5 , 30 Solomon executed Adonijah Ist Kings 2:19-25

ADONI-ZEDEC -- At Gibeon he was killed by Joshua as One of the five Amorite kings who joined forces to oppose Joshua's army. Josh 10:1-26

ADOPTION -- As defined in cannon law is foreign to the bible

ADOPTION SUPENATURAL -- The legal act of giving status to someone as a family member. Exod 2:9-10 Esther 2:7 When Paul spoke it was of adoption in symbolic, spiritual terms Rom 11:1-32 Gal 4:4-7 Faith in Christ makes it possible for us to become God's Adopted Children Gal 3:24-26

ADOPTIONISM -- Strictly speaking this refers to an eight-century Spanish heresy but is used to cover other similar heresy. The theory is that the man Jesus as some point in time became the Son of God only by adoption

ADORAIM -- King Rehoboam, son of Solomon rebuilt and fortified this city in southwest Judah. II Chron 11: 5 , 9 It is five miles southwest of Hebron and is now known as Dura

ADORATION -- In the strict sence, this is an act of religion offered to God in acknowledgment of His supreme perfection and domination, and of all the creature's dependence upon Him

ADORATION, PERPETUAL -- A broadly used term used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed Sacrament.

ADORO TE DEVOTE -- A hymn sometimes styled Rhythmus, or Oratio S. Thomae written c. 1260

ADRAMMELECH -- Assyrian colonist who settled in Samarian after the fall of the Northern Kingdom worshiped this pagan god. Children were given as sacrifices to this god II Kings 17:31

ADRAM YTTIUM --In the Roman province of Asia an important seaport. To begin his voyage to Rome Paul boarded a "ship of Adramyttium" Acts 27:2

ADRIA/ADRIATIC SEA -- The central part of the Mediterranean Sea south of modern Italy was given this name. During his voyage to Rome Paul was shipwrecked here. Acts 27:27

ADRIAN I, POPE -- Reigned 772-95

ADRIAN II, POPE -- Reigned 867-872

ADRIAN III, POPE SAINT -- A Roman who died in 885 Short article on this pope

ADRIAN IV -- Reigned 1154-1159

ADRIAN IV, POPE -- Reigned 1154-1159

ADRIAN, V, POPE -- A nephew of Innocent IV and a Genoese. Did 18 August 1276 after being elected at Viterbo 12 July 1276

ADRIAN VI Pope-- Reigned 1522-1523

ADRIAN OF CANTERBURY, SAINT -- African-born Benedictine Abbot D. 710

ADRIEL -- (ay'dri-el) Merab, Saul's elder daughter's husband. Merab had been promised to David 1st Sam 18:17-19

ADULTERATION OF FOOD -- This action is defined as the additon of any non-condimental substance to a food.

ADULLAM -- Conquered by Joshua a royal Canaanite city. Josh 12:7 , 15 David sought refuge in a cave near here in later years. I Sam 22:1-2

ADULTERY -- A person other than one's wife or husband that you have sexual intercourse with. Jesus expanded the concept to desire and lust which can lead to adultery. Matt 5:25

ADUMMIM -- The ascent of adummim From Jerusalem to Jericho a passing in the road (Josh 15:7 ; 18:17)

ADVENT OF CHRIST, THE FIRST -- It introduced the gospel age and canceled the Old Testament ceremonial system Heb 9 Foretold of His coming in the Old Testament. Isa 7:14 An angel reassured Joseph that Mary's pregnancy was supernatural Matt 1:20-21 The angel Gabriel announces Jesus coming birth to Mary Luke 1:26-35 In Bethlehem Jesus was born to Mary Matt 1:25 ; 2:1 Birth of Jesus revealed to the shepherds Luke 2:2:8-19 gifts were brought to the Christ child by Wise men from the East. Matt 2:1-11 Defined as a redemptive mission was His birth Matt 1:21-23 ; Luke 2:10-11

ADVENT -- A perod beginning with the sunday nearest to the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle and embracing four sundays is according to the 1907 usage.

ADVENTISTS -- A group of six American Protestant sects which hold in a common belief in the near return of Christ in person

ADVERSARY -- An active opponent, a term used to describe of Satan I Peter 5:8 The wisdom of God is promised to believers when they face the adversary Luke 21:15 God also promised that His judgment will ultimately fall on His enemies Heb 10:27

ADVERSITY -- Difficult or unfavorable circumstances: 1. caused by sin Gen 3:16-17 2. disobedience toward God Lev 26:14-20 ; 3. God testing our faith ; I Pet 1:5-8 4. Chasten and correct us back to the correct path Heb 12:5-11

ADVOCATE -- Someone who pleads the cause of another I John 2:1 The Holy Spirit is our advocate and provides power for worldwide evangelism Acts 1:8 As our advocate the Holy Spirit will abide with the believers forever John 14:16

ADVOCATUS DIABOLI -- Established in 1587 by Sixtus V to deal juridically with processes of beatification and cannonization a title given to an officer of the Sacred Congregation of Rites.

ADVOWSON -- A right exercised by nomination of a clergyman to such church or other benefice an English law the right of a church or ecclesiastical benefice.

ADYTUM -- The innermost sanctuary or shrine, a secret chanber or place of retirement in the ancient temples, and esteemed the most sacred spot.

AELFRED THE GREAT -- King of the West Sazons (849-899)

AEIRED, SAINT - CISTERCIAN ABBOT -- homilist, spiritual writer d. 1166 or 1167?

AENEAS -- A Lame man healed at Lydda near Joppa by Peter. Many people were influenced to turned to Christ because of His conversion (Acts 9:32-35)

AENON -- Exact location unknown, where John the Baptist baptized. It is rich in water resources, and located some where on the west bank of hte Jordan near Salim and south of Seythopolis (John 3:23)

AEONS -- Gnostic Heresiarchs appropriated this term to designate the series of spiritual powers evolved by progrssive emanation from the eternal Being.

AESORA (i-sor'-a) Of the city of Hazor a Variant name (Judith 4:4)

AFFINITY (IN THE BIBLE) -- Scripture recognizes affinity as an impediment to wedlock

AFFINITY (IN CANNON LAW) Whereby the man becomes related to the woman's blood-relatives and the woman to the man's. A relationship arising from the carnal intercourse of a man and a woman, sufficient for the generation of children.

AFFLICTION -- Any condition which causes pain and suffering. It can result as God's judgment on sin. Rom 2:9 or it may be used as an instrument or perfection and purification for believers Rom 5:3-8 ; II Thess 1:4-7

AFRICA -- This name was at first given by the Romans to the territrory about the city of Carthage which is of Phoenician origin.

AFRICAN LITURGY -- Used in the Old Roman province of Africa of which Carthage was the capital but also in Numidia and Mauretania.

AFRICAN SYNODS -- Commonly called Carthaginian Synods or African

AGABUS -- As a prophet of the New Testament mentioned in Acts 11;28 and 21:10

AGABUS -- A Christian prophet who warned of a worldwide famine to Paul in Antioch of Syria Acts 11:28 Agabus used a symbolic demonstration to predict Paul's impending arrest at Carsarea. Acts 21:10-11


AGAPE -- A Greek word for selfless love, charity

AGATE -- Probably a distinct variety of quartz but a precious stone in the breastplate of the high priest. Exod 28:19

AGORA (ag'-o-ra) -- In Gecian times, the center of town, the town square, place of assembly, meeting and markets ( Acts 16:19 ; 17:7 ; Matthew 11:16 ; 20:13 ; Mark 6:56)

AGRIPPA -- Agrippa II was the Aprippa of Acts (Acts 25:13-26:32) son of Herod Agrippa I and grandson of Herod the Great

AGUR (ay'-gur) -- Son of Jakeh and and a author of a small collection of Proverbs (Proverbs 30:1-33)

AHAB -- Ahab was the seventh king of Israel, ruled for twenty-two years and was the son of Omri. He married the daughter of the king of Tyre, Jezebel. Ahab permitted Baalism into Israel to please his wife who was a worshiper of the Phoenician god Baal. Ahab wanted Naboth vineyard to add his land to the vast land he already had so, Ahab instigated the death of Naboth. He was mortally wounded in the battle at Ramoth-Gilead after many great victories over the Syrians. Jezebel was eaten by dogs after Elijah had prophesied, the dogs licked his blood. I Kings 16:28 --22:40

AHASUERUS -- A king of Persia who married Esther and listened to her counsel on the Jewish People. Due to her counseling he ordered his aide Haman executed which saved the Jewish people from destruction Esther 7:1-10 There is an agreement from most of the scholars that this Ahasuerus is the same person as King Zerzes I of Persian history reigned 485-464 B.C.

AHAVA/ IVAH (IVVAH) (a-hay'-va) -- Where the Jesish exiles gathered after their deportation, A town in Babylonia. Before leading a group of exiles back to Jerusalem Ezra camped near a stream with this name. Ezra 8:15-31 Ivah: II Kings 18:34 Ivvah; NIV, NRSV

AHAZ/ACHAZ -- Reigned over Judah for 16 years and was the son of Jotham, he was an idolatrous king who fail to walk with Jehovah. He ignored the advice of Isaiah to reply on Jehovah rather than seek foreign aid when Jerusalem was under siege by Syria and Israel. By giving the king of Assyria the treasures of the Temple he gained aid from them. Hosea, Isaiah, and Micah prophesied during his reign II Kings 16


AHIAM (a-jy'-am) One of David's thirty warriors. (2nd Sam 23:33 ; 1st Chron 11:35) 

AHIHUD -- Appointed by Moses to help divide the land of Canaan after its occupation by the Israelites, A leader of the tribe of Asher. Num 34:27

AHIJAH -- A prophet who told of the forth-coming split of Solomon's united kingdom who revealed it to Jeroboam I Kings 11:29-30 Later, he foretold the elimination of his line form kingship and the death of Jeroboam's son. I Kings 14:1-8

AHIKAM -- He protected the prophet Jeremiah from the persecution of King Jehoiakim, an officer in King Josiah's court. Jer 26:24

AHIMAAZ (a-him'-a-az) --

AHIMAN (a-hy-man) Among the Anakin of Hebron one of the three legenday giants. (Num 13:22 ; Josh 15:14 ; Judges 1:10)

AHIMELECH -- During the rein of Saul the high priest at Nob I Sam 21:1 He befriended David during his flight from Saul I Sam 21:2-9 Saul gave the command to have him killed I Sam 22:16-19

AHINADAB (a-hin'-a-dab) One of King Solomon twelve officers who provided food for the royal household (1st Kings 4:14)

AHINOAM (a-hin'-o-am) --

AHIO (a-hy'-o) Son of Abinadab and brother of Uzzah (2nd Sam 6:3-4)

AHIRAM -- Leader of a clain of the tribe of Benjamin (Num 26:38)

AHITHOPHEL -- One of the aides to David who joined Absalom's rebellion II Sam 15:12 Upon realizing Absalom's plot was doom he committed suicide II Sam 17:23

AHITUB a-hy'-tub) --The father of Ahimelich who was the priest of Nob who helped David ( 1st Sam 22:9)

AI/AIATH/HAL -- It first defied Joshua , a royal Canaanite city then later was defeated and destroyed by the invading Israelites Josh 7:2-5 ; 8:18-21 Aiath: Isa 10:28 Aija: Neh 11:31 Hai: Gen 12:5

AIJALON/AJALON -- In the territory of Dan a city I Sam 14:31 Joshua battled the five Amorite kings, which during the battle ths sun stood still Josh 10:12-13 Ajalon: Josh 19:42

AIJELETH SHAHAR -- In the title of Ps 22 a musical term probably indicating the melody to be sung

AIN -- Used as a beading over Ps 119:121-128 the sixteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet.


ALABASTER -- Similar to gypsum a soft stone, which was carved into jars, boxes, vases, etc. Perfume from an alabaster box was used to anoint Jesus Mark 14:3

ALAMOTH -- In the title of Ps 46 a musical term perhaps referring to a choir of women's voices I Chron 15:20

ALEPH -- Used as a heading over Ps 119:1-8 the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

ALEXANDER (1) Paul condemned this unfaithful disciple at Ephesus I Tim 1:19-20
  (2) Greek world conqueror and ruler called Alexander the Great or Alexander III of Macedonia. He took the throne in
336BC and extended his empire from Greece around the Mediterranean Sea to Egypt and then pushed it to India. At
the age of 33 he died in Babylonia. Alexander is perhaps the mighty kine of Dan 11:3-4 althought he is not mentioned
by name in tht bible. Dan 7:6 ; 8:21

ALEXANDER VI, POPE -- Rodrigo Borgia was born in Spain at Xativa, near Valencis 1 January 1431 and died 18 August, 1503 in Rome.

ALEXANDER VII, POPE --Biographical article on this seventeenth-centur pontiff

ALEXANDER VIII, POPE -- Born at Venice April 1610 Pietro Ottoboni elected 5 Octorber 1698, died 1 February 1691 at Rome.

ALEXANDER, SAINT (BISHOP OF COMANA) At the recommendation of St. Gregory Thaumaturgus made bishop of Comana. St Alexander was martyred in the Decian persectuion.

ALEXANDER, SAINT (PATRIARCH OF ALEXANDRIA) -- Patriarch of Alexandria. St Alexander died in 326

ALEXANDRIA -- A cultureal center and capital city of Egypt founded by Alexander the Great in New Testament time. Stephen was opposed by the citizens of Alexandria Acts 6:9

ALGUM/ALMUG -- Imported from Lebanon II Chron 2:8 A tree and its wood was used in Jerusalem in Solomon's temple I Kings 10:11-12

ALIEN -- A stranger or foreigner from a country other than Israel. Regarded as Gentiles they failed to have the same rights of the citizens of Israel Deut 14:21 ; Job 19:15

ALLEGORY -- An important truth in symbolic fashion communicated from a story. Paul spoke of the births of Isaac and Ishmael in allegorical terms Gal 4:22-26

ALLELUIA -- The Hebrew word Hallelujah in Greek form, meaning "praise ye the Lord" Rev 19:1-6

ALLINCE -- A treaty between an individuals or nations. Canaanites nations were forbidden to have alliance with them. Deut 7:2-5 ; Exod 23:32 Israel was warned against forming any kind of alliances that might replace their dependence on God Jer 2:18 Nevertheless alliances between foreigners and Old Testament characters were common. [1] Solomon's many marriage alliances I Kings 3:1 ; 11:1-3 [2.] Abraham with Abimelech of Gerar Gen 21:22-34 [3.] King Solomon with Hiram of Tyre I Kings 5:1-12

ALMIGHTY -- God's title which indicates His majesty and absolute power. When God talked to Abraham God used this term to identify Himself. Gen 17:1 In his vision of God's glory Ezekiel portrayed God in this light. Exek 1:24 ; 10:5 Christ Rev 1:8

ALMOND -- Known for its early spring blossoms a small tree, Using an almond branch Jeremiah visualized it as a sign of God's rapidly approaching judgment against the nation of Judah Jer 1:11-12

ALMS -- Voluntary gifts people give to the needy. In Deut 15:11 The Israelites were commanded to be generous to the poor. Jesus cautioned His disciples not to give alms for the praise of others or for show. Matt 6:2-4

ALOES -- A spice used in the embalming of the dead. It was used on the body of Jesus by Joseph of Arimathea. John 19:38-39

ALPHAEUS (al-fee'-us)

ALPHA AND OMEGA -- First and last letters of the Greek alphabet. Applied to God the Father and God the Son this title is symbolic of the eternity of Christ. Rev 1:8 ; 21:6-7

ALTAR -- Sacrifices were placed on as offerings usually a platform, elevated structure table. They were normally made of earth or rocks Exod 20:24-25 After the construction of the tabernacle they evolved into more sophisticates structures. Lev 9:24 Pagan Canaanite altars were normal built on hills or high platforms Num 33:52

ALTASCHITH -- A word used of uncertain meaning in the titles of Ps 57 , 58 , 59 , and 75

ALUSH (ay'-lush) In the wilderness during the journey to Canaar a stopping place for the Israelites. Num 33:13-14

AMALEK -- Grandson of Esau, the son of Eliphaz and ancestor of the Edomites Gen 36:9-12

AMALEKITES -- Israelites' tribal enemy Began during the wilderness wandering with an unprovoked attack Exod 17:8-16 Saul and David both battled this tribe. I Sam 14:48 ; 30:1-31

AMAMA (a-may'-na) In the Anti-Lebanon range a mountain Song of Songs 4:8

AMARNA TABLETS -- Written by various kings shortly after the Israelites invaded Canaan under Joshua Ancient clay tablets found in Egypt. They show the political unrest and the culture of the period.

AMASA -- Commander of Absalom's rebel army and David's nephew II Sam 19:13 Appointed to command David's army after David forgave him. Joab killed Amasa. II Sam 20:9-12

AMAZIAH -- Judah's king reigned about 796-767 B.C. II Kings 14:1-20 To attack Edom he assembled an army and embraced the false gods of Edom II Chron 25:5-15 His political enemies assassinated him II Chron 25:25-28

AMBASSADOR -- Representative , messenger, spokesman of a ruler or king. Paul called himself an ambassador for Christ Eph 6:20 He figuratively applied this term to all believers II Cor 5:20

AMBASSAGE (DELEGATION) -- A group of messengers or ambassadors Luke 14:32

AMBER -- A precious stone or gem known for its yellowish-orange brilliance Ezekiel compared Amber to God's glory Ezek 1:4, 27 ; 8:2

AMEN -- Used to express approval, a solemn word Neh 8:6 Used to confirm an oath Neh 5:13 Used to close a pray I Cor 14:16 "The Amen" is used for Jesus meaning "He is true and reliable" Rev 3:14

AMETHYST -- In the breastplate of the high priest a violet-colored precious stone. Exod 28:19 also in the New Jerusalem's foundation Rev 21:20

AMMIEL -- Representing the tribe of Dan, One of the twelve spies who scouted the land of Canaan Num 13:12

AMMONITES -- Descended from Ammon a race or tribe who became enemies of the Israelites during the Exodus Deut 23:3 Chrmosh was their chief pagan god Judg 11:24 the Israelites ofter indulged in idolatrous Ezra 9:1 An Ammonite named Tobiah attempted to stop the rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem Neh 2: 10 , 19

AMNON -- David's son who assaulted his half sister Tamar- her brother Absalom avenged that act with his death at his hands II Sam 3:2 ; 13:1-29

AMON -- Amon son of Manasseh was the fifteenth king of Judah. He was a twenty-two years old who did great evil in the sight of the Lord and two years as king his servants killed him. II Kings 21:18-25 ; II Chronicles 33:20-25

AMORITES -- The Israelites defeated this tribal group of Canaan. Descendants of Ham through his son Canaan Gen 10:6 Joshua won over there armies by victories over the armies of Sihon and Og Josh 12:1-6 King Solomon reduced them to servitude I Kings 9:19-21

AMOS -- Amos who was a herdsman, dresser of sycamore trees and prophet came from the small town six miles south of Bethlehem call Tekoa. Amos had much time for meditation and received a call form God to denounce the evil of his day. Amos was not from a school of prophets he had a very solitary mode of life and walked in the site of the Lord. Amos prophesied both in Judah and Israel. The earlies prophecies that have come down to us are the writing of Amos. Amos was the first to predict Israel's captivity and the Book of Amos keynote is judgment.

AMOS, BOOK OF -- Written by the prophet Amos about 760 B.C. He wrote it to call the wayward people of the Northern Kingdom back to worship the true God. Amos is in thee major divisions [1.] Pronouncement of judgment on Israel and surrounding nations. Amos 1:3-2:16 [2.] Three sermons of judgment against the oppression, idolatry, corruption of Israel Amos 3:1-6:14 [3.] God's approaching judgment against the nation five visions Amos 7:1-9:10 True religion is following God's commands and treating others with justice Amos 5:24

AMPHIPOLIS -- During the second missionary journey Paul and Silas passed through this city in the province of Macedonia Acts 17:1

AMPLIAS -- Paul greeted and commended this fellow believer at Rome in his epistle to the Roman Christians Rom 16:8

AMRAPHEL -- Invaded the land of Canaan in Abraham's time A king of Shinar or ancient Bbylonia Gen 14:1 , 9

ANAK -- Ancestor of a tribe of giants or men of renown, the son of Arba Deut 9:2

ANAKIMS (ANAKIM, ANAKITES) -- Descended from Anak, a tribe of giants, who inhabited Canaan and in Joshua's time were greatly feared. Num 13:28 , 33 ; Deut 9:2 Joshua by dividing their forces was able to capture their major walled city, Hebron or Kirjath-arba Josh 14:12-15

ANAMMELECH -- Foreigners who settled the land after the defeat of the Northern Kingdom by Assyrai worshiped at Samaria this false god II Kings 17:24 , 31

ANANIAS Acts of the Apostles speaks of three different men by this name.
    ( 1. ) Sapphira's husband who together declared to Peter that they were turning over all the money from property that they had sold while with holding some of it. They were stricken dead for their sin. Act 5:1-6
 ( 2. ) After Saul had his conversion experience on the road to Damascus God sent a vision to Ananias, who was a disciple at Damascus, to seek out Saul in the City, where he found him at the home of Judas and that he baptized him and restored his sight. Acts 9:10-17 ; 22:12
 ( 3. ) A high priest that was killed in Jerusalem. Before the governor at Caesarea he played a prominent part in the persecution of Paul. Act 23:2 ; 24:1

ANATHEMA -- It means "accursed" or "separated" the transliteration of a Greek word. I Cor 16:22

ANATHOTH --Birthplace of the prophet Jeremiah a village about three miles north of Jerusalem Jer 1:1

ANCHOR -- Used to hold a ship steady usually a heavy iron weight. Acts 27:29 , 40

ANCIENT OF DAYS (ANCIENT ONE) -- A title to show God's ruling authority over the world empires of his day used by the prophet Daniel Dan 7:9-22

ANDREW -- He was Simon Peter's brother and also one of the twelve Apostles. They were fisherman from Behsaida in Galile. Andrew was a great admirer of John the Baptist before knowing Jesus. Andrew became one of Jesus' disciples after Jesus was baptism-ed, and Andrew became the first missionary by bringing his brother, Peter to Jesus. The lad with the five barley loaves and two small fish was brought to Jesus by Andrew. It is believed that he preached in Scythia (Russia), Bithynia, and Cappadocia. He was placed on a cross shaped like an X and was martyred in the year 70 bound to a cross in Patrae (Patras to day) a sea-port in the Peloponnesus, in wester Greece on the Gulf of Patras. He preached to his persecutors until he died. His bones was than taken to Scotland and became the patron saint of that country. St Andrew's cross now appears as the diagonal X in the British Union Jack because a patron saint is supposed to give special protection. He may of been the first bishop of Byzantium (Constantinope) and believed to be buried at Amaifi. Mark 1 , 3 , 13 : John 1 , 6 , 12

ANDRONICUS -- Paul greeted and commended this fellow believer in his letter to the Roman Christians Rom 16:7

ANGEL -- God created these heavenly or spiritual being Ps 148:2 , 5 They obey and serve Him Ps 103:20 Some angels are God's mess-agers to human beings Luke 1:13 Protect God's people. Dan 3:28 Praising the name of the Lord Ps 103:20-21 Satan and one third of all angels revolted against God and was cast out of heaven. Rev 12:7-9 Another fallen angel is Abaddon or Apollyon, "the angel of the bottomless pit" Rev 9:11

ANGEL OF THE LORD -- God sent this heavenly being to human beings as His personal agent or spokesman. One appeared to Hagar in the wilderness Gen 16:7-12 To Moses Exod 3:2-3 and then to Gideon Judg 6:11-12

ANGER -- A strong feeling or displeasure, God sometimes is pictured as slow to anger Nah 1:3 Anger that is not godly anger is condemned by God Matt 5:22

ANGUISH -- Emotional or mental stress caused by physical pain II Sam 1:9 physical hardships Exod 6:9 or conflict of the soul Job 7:11

ANISE (DILL) -- A common plant of little value except for using to season food and some medicinal purposes. Jesus condemned those that used insignificant plant but overlooked important matters that need attending to such as faith, mercy, and judgment. Matt 23:23

ANNA -- Luke 2:36-38 tells us all that is known about Anna, the propheress She was the daughter of Phanuel of the tribe of Asher. Spending all her time in fasting and prayer she had cloistered herself in the temple. Upon hearing the benediction of Simeon when the infant Jesus was brought to the temple, she thanked God for the arrival of the long-waited Messiah.

ANNAS -- After Jesus' was arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane, he was the first High priest that Jesus was take in front of. He than set Jesus to his son-in-law, Caiaphas a high priest also, (John 18:12-24 As important ecclesiastic leader he was among those at the hearing of John and Peter in Jerusalem. Luke 3:2 ; John 18: 13 , 24 ; Acts 4:6-7

ANNUNCIATION -- Gabriel's the angel announcement to Mary that she had been chosen to give birth to the Son of God Luke 1:26-38

ANOINTING -- It was an act of setting a person apart for a specific task or work. In the Old Testament time prophets, kings, and priests were anointed with oil be poured on their heads Exod 29:7 Healing was practice in New Testament times with application of oil Mark 6:13 In God's kingdom all Christians are anointed . II Cor 1:21

ANT -- Cited as an example of hard work a small insect that can move twice its weight. Prov 6:6-8

ANTEDILUVIANS -- People who had lived before the great flood. All except Noah and his family were condemned for their wickedness Gen 6:5-8

ANTHROPOMNORPHISMS -- Ascribed to God human attributes. God has a nature that is provoked to anger and jealousy by idolatry Ps 78:58, An arm of deliverance Exod 6:6 and eyes too pure to look upon evil Hab 1:13

ANTICHRIST -- He will be defeated in the end-times, the archenemy of Christ and all Christians. In the prophecies of Danie Dan 7:7-8 The Antichrist will receive his power and his authority from Satan Rev 13:4 He will be deceitful and lawless II Thess 2:3-12 ; II John 7 Before the return of Christ the Antichrist will appear to wage war against Christ and His people Rev 13:6-8 Christ will defeat him and cast him into a lake of fire Rev 19:20 ; 20:10

ANTINOMIANISM -- This idea is based on an erroneous view of grace according to Paul Rom 6:1-2 This believe is that grace exempts a person from the Moral law. The spirit of brotherly love is abused with Christian liberty violation Gal 5:13-16 .

ANTIOCH OF PISIDIA -- Paul preached in the synagogue in this city of Pisidia, a district in Asia Minor. Paul redirected his ministry to the Gentiles because of the resistance to the gospel Acts 13:14-51 His persecution at Antioch Paul later recalled. II Tim 3:11 ANTIOCH OF SYRIA -- Site of the first Gentile Christian church which sent Paul on his missionary journey was this city in Syria. Acts 13:1-4 ; 15:35-41 The first time the term Christians was used for Believers was in this city. Acts 11:26 Judaizers who insisted that Gentile believers be circumcised was troubling at this church at Antioch. Acts 15:1-4

ANTIOCHUS IV EPHIPHANES -- This cruel ruler ruled about 175-165 B.C. of the Seleucid dynasty in Syria His atrocities led the Jewish people to revolt. Abomination of Desolation;Maccabees

ANTIPAS -- Of the church at Pergamos a Christian martyr Rev 2:13

ANTIPATRIS -- Paul was lodged as a prisoner while being transported in this city located between Jerusalem and Caesarea. Acts 23:31

ANTIPHON -- One or more sentences from Holy Scripture or psalm verses which are sung or recited before and after each psalm and the Magnificat during Matins and Vespers.

ANTIPHON, COMMUNION -- Not only for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, the term Communion is used also as a shortened form for the antiphon that was originally sung while the people were receiving the Blessed Sacrament.

ANTIPHONARY -- Intended for use in the liturgical choir and originally characterized is one of the present liturgical books by the assignment to it principally of the antiphons used in various parts of the Roman liturgy.

ANTIPODES -- Speculations concerning the rotundity of the earth and possible existence of human beings were of the interest to the Fathers of the Early Church only in so far as they seemed to encroach upon the fundamental Christian dogma of the unity of the human race, and the consequent universality of original sin and redemption.

ANTIPOPE -- In opposition to a pontiff canonically elected, a false claimant of the Holy See.

ANTIQUITIES,BIBLICAL -- Details domestic, political, and sacred antiquities.

ANTONINUS PLUS -- Roman Emperor (138-161)

ANTONIO MARIA ZACCARIA, SAINT -- Founder of the Barnabites, A Doctor of Medicine d. 1539

ANTWERP -- In the archdiocese of Mechlin, A city of Belgium

APACHES -- North American trible of Indians belonging linguistically to the Athapasan stock whose original habitat is believed to have been Northwestern Canada

APIECE -- It is translated in Luke 9:3 for used with numerals or measures of quantity with a distributive force.

ANVIL -- Used by a blacksmith it is a block of iron on which metal was shaped. Isa 41:7

APE -- Imported into Judah by King Solomon a type of monkey, perhaps a baboon or chimpanzee. I Kings 10:22

APELLES -- Paul greeted and commended in his letter to the Roman Christians this fellow believer. Rom 16:10

APHEK -- Prophet Elisha prophesied this Syria's defeat in this town in Jezreel. II Kings 13:14-19

APOCALYPSE -- A Greek word when translated it means "revelation" Revelation refers to an unveiling of the hidden things known only to God Gal 1:12 The Book of Revelation through symbols, visions, and numbers depicts the end of the present age and the coming of God's future. Other apocalyptic writings examples in the Bible are Mark 13 , Matt 24 , Zech 9-12 , Ezek 37-41 , Isa 24-27 , and Dan 7-12

APOCATASTASIS -- In the history of theolgy to the doctrine a name was given to the doctrine which teaches that a time will come when all free creatures will share in the grace of salvation in a special way.

APOCRYPHA -- Included in the bible of some religious groups this is a group of books written about 150 B.C. to A.D. The books are Baruch, Bel and the Dragon, the Wisdom of Jesus, the Son Sirach, The First and Second Books of Esdras, First and Second Maccabees, Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men, Prayer of Manasseh, Susanna, Tobit, and Wisdom of Solomon. Some religious groups have some or all of these included in their bible. Most people don't considered them authoritative in the same sense as the rest of the books in the bible.

APPOLLINARIANISM -- The theory that Jesus had a human body and soul, but that the Logos took the place of the human spirit or mind in Jesus. Fourth-century Christological hersey propounded by Apollinaris of Laodicea. Solemnly condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 381

APPOLYON -- Bottomless pit (Rev 9:11) in Greek form : The Abyss, realm of the dead (Job 26:6: Proverbs 15:11) signifying ruins, destruction ((Job 31:12)

APLLONIA -- Martyr at Alexandria in late 248 or earyl 249 A.D A virgin possibly ordained.

APPOLLONIA -- In the province of Macedonia a town between Amphipolis and Thessalonica During the second missionary journey Paul and Silas passed through this city. Acts 17:1

APOLLOS -- Apollos a Jew who came to Ephesus was from the city of Alexandria. He spoke in the synagogue about the baptism of John where Aquila and Priscilla heard him speak. They then instructed him more accurately in the way of God. He left Ephesus and moved on to Corinth where he spoke publicly. Acts 18:28 The letter to the Corinthians Paul referred to him frequently. Acts 18:24 --19:1 ; I Corinthians 1:12 ; 3:4-6 , 22 ; 4:6 ; 16:12 Titus 3:13

APOLOGETICS -- A theological sciences: its purpose is the explanation and defence of the Christian religion.

APOSTASY -- Renunciation of one's faith in Christ or a falling away from the truth Heb 3:12 Apostasy is usually caused by Satan Luke 22:31-32 false teachers' influence II Tim 4:3-4 fall away because of persecution Matt 13:21 love of worldly materials II Tim 4:10 It will never occur if believers are grounded in the truth Eph 4:13-16 Depend on the protective armor of God Eph 6:10-18

APOSTLE -- Commissioned by Christ a person personally to represent Him Matt 10:1-4 Original twelve chosen by Jesus after praying all night. Luke 6:12-16 All apostles were commission or given special message John 15:16 They were empowered to cast out evil spirits and to heal Matt 10:1 Paul regarded himself as an apostle for the encounter with Jesus and being called by Jesus to do missionary work I Cor 15:8-10 Anyone who saw the risen Christ and called by Jesus are regarded as apostles in Paul's letters. I Cor 15:5-6

APOSTLE SPOONS: Usually made of silver, a set spoons numbering thirteen, the handles of which are adorned with representations of OUr Lord (the Master spoon) and the twelve Apostles

APOTHECARY (PERFUMER) -- Person who makes perfumes. Perfumes were used to anoint the bodies of the dead and used in worship ceremonies Exod 30:25-35

APPII FORUM (FORUM OF APPIUS) -- About forty miles south of Rome a station on the Roman road know as the Appian Way. As Paul approached the Roman Empire's capital Paul's friends traveled there to meet him. Acts 28:15

AQUILA -- Paul met them in Corinth when they were refugees from Rome and when ever Aquila name is mentioned his wife's name is also mentioned, Priscilla. Aquila was a tent maker and with that common interest Paul stated with them for a year and half with them having a church in their home. They were responsible for the Christian instruction of Apollos Acts 18:2 , 18 , 26 ; Romans 16:3 ; I Corinthians 16:19 ; II Timothy 4:19

ARABAH -- It stretches for about 240 miles from Mt Hermon in the north to the Red Sea in the South, this valley is on both sides of the Jordan River. Josh 18:18

ARABIA -- Southeast of Palestine about 1,400 miles long by 800 miles wide this dry, hot, and sparsely inhabited desert area. From Arabia bring gold and precious jewel to King Solomon was the queen of Sheba. I Kings 10:2-15

ARAD -- Captured by Joshua a Canaanite city south of Hebron Josh 12:7 , 14

ARAM (1.) Shem's son Gen 10:22-23
  (2.) Another word used for the nation of Syria Num 23:7

ARARAT, MOUNT -- Where Noah's ark landed in a mountainous region Gen 8:4 The location of this mountain is unknown

ARAUNAH/ORNAN -- David bought a threshing floor as a place to build an altar from this Jebusite. II Sam 24:16-24 In Jerusalem in later years this plot of ground was the site on which Solomon's temple was built. II Chron 3:1 Ornan: I Chron 21:15 , II Chron 3:1

ARBA -- The ancestor of a tribe of giants known as the Anakims or Anakim and the father of Anak. Josh 14:15

ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE BIBLE -- Remains of past civilizations is study in an attempt to understand the live and times of biblical people. Bones, metal, stone wood and fragments of ancient writings are studied. The focus of archaeology in the Old Testament time includes Palestine (Canaan) Persia (modern Iran), the Mesopotamian Valley, Egypt, and Syria. Dates are established by 1. measurement of the radioactivity of an object's carbon content (radiocarbon dating), 2. Study of designs (typology) and pottery materials, 3. Examination of the earth or tells in mounds or tells (stratigraphy) The meaning of words and customs changes over time, to understand the meaning of a word and custom of the time helps us understand the bible greater.

ARCHANGEL -- A spiritual being next in rank above an angel or a chief angel. Michael the archangel in the end-time will contend with Satan Jude 9 and proclaim the Lord's return I These 4:16

ARCHER -- A warrior skilled in the use of a bow and arrows I Sam 31:3

ARCHEVITES -- After the Northern Kingdom fell to Assyria Foreign colonists who settled in Samaria Ezra 4:9-16

ARCHIPPUS -- In the church at Colossae a fellow believer whom Paul encouraged. Col 4:17 .

ARCTURUS -- As evidence of God's sovereignty a constellation of stars. Job 9:9

AREOPAGUS -- Paul appeared to defend his claims about Jesus and His resurrection before this council of Greek philosophers in Athens Acts 17:19 These philosophers met on a hill which was apparently called Mars' Hill Acts 17:22

ARETAS -- Arabia norther ruler whose deputy attempted to capture Paul after his conversion in Damascus II Cor 11:32

ARGOB -- Included in Solomon's kingdom a district of Bashan Sixty fortified cities were contained in Argob I Kings 4:13

ARIEL -- Meaning "lion of God" a symbolic name for the city of Jerusalem Isa 29:1-2 , 7

ARIMATHAEA (ARIMATHEA) -- Joseph's home who buried the body of Jesus in his own tomb a city in the Judean hills about five miles northwest of Jerusalem John 19:38

ARISTARCHUS -- On Paul's third missionary journey a Christian who accompanied him. Acts 20:4 He also traveled to Rome with Paul Acts 27:2

ARISTOBULUS -- At Rome a fellow believer who Paul greeted and commended in his letter to the Roman Christians Rom 16:10

ARK, NOAH'S -- A very large wooden ship which Noah built according to God's directions Gen 6:14-16 for his family, selected animals that were delivered by God. Upon Noah and his family and a pair of all living creatures Gen 6:19-20 entered the ark Rain fell for 40 days Gen 7:17 with waster covering the earth for 150 days Gen 7:24. A wind to restrain the water was sent by God Gen 8:1-3 with the ark coming to rest on a mountain in Ararat Gen 8:4 Noah was promised by God that the earth would never be destroyed by water again Gen 8:20-22 The ark is symbolic of baptism I Pet 3:20-21 and God's preserving grace Luke 17:26-27 ; Heb 11:7

ARK OF THE COVENANT/ARK OF THE TESTIMONY -- The Ten Commandments were inscribed and place in this wooden chest . The ark symbolized the presence of God to the nation of Israel Deut 10:3-4 It was taken into battle by the Israelites I Sam 4:4-5 and T captured by the Philistines I Sam 4:10-11 The Ark was place in the temple in Jerusalem I Kings 8:1-11 after its return to Israel I Sam 6:1-15 It is believed to have been carried away by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia after the fall of Jerusalem with all of the other treasures II Chron 36:6 , 18 Ark of the Testimony: Exod 25:22

ARM OF GOD -- A sentence that symbolizes God's strength and power Ps 89:10 , 13

ARMAGEDDON -- A Greek word for the valley that is between Mount Carmel and the city of Jezreel. In Bible times due to its strategic location on two major trade routes this valley was the site of many battles. This region became a symbol of the final conflict between God and the forces of evil and of God's ultimate victory because of its bloody history. Rev 16:16

ARMENIA -- North of Syria formerly known as Ararat, A mountainous land. Isa 37:38

ARMOR -- Covering used for defensive and protection during battle. It also symbolic of God's spiritual protection Eph 6:11

ARMORBEARER -- An attendant or aide who carried the armor and weapons of a warrior of high rank or a military officer Judg 9:54

ARNON -- East of the Jordan River and into the Dead Sea a swift river which runs through the mountains Josh 12:1

ARPHAXOAD-- Born after the great flood a son of Shem Gen 11:10-13

ARROW -- Shot from a bow a projectile used for hunting and war. Also used symbolically to denote a calamity inflicted by God Job 6:4 it can also signify something injurious such as false testimony Prov 25:18

ARTAXERXES I. -- King of Persia who succeed Cyrus and the king in who Nehemiah and Ezra served Ezra 7:1 ; 7 Artaxerxes authorized Ezra about 458 B.C. to lead a large group of Jews back to Jerusalem for resettlement Ezra 7:1-28 Nehemiah was allowed to return to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem about thirteen years later by Artaxerxes I. Neh 2:1-10 ; 13:6

ARTEMAS -- At Nicopolis a faithful coworker with Paul Titus 3:12

ARTIFICER -- Especially skilled in metal-working, Craftsmen that Solomon hired from Tyre with these skills to build the temple in Jerusalem II Chron 2:3 . 7

ASA -- Asa King of Judah 912-872 BC 41 years long reign. Asa was a godly king of Judah unlike his father Abijah, who was his predecessors. He overlapped the reign of seven kings in the Northern Kingdom. He did a grave wave of reforms that swept the land while severing the Lord with great zeal. He removed his mother from being Queen because she worshiped an idol, he broke down altars, high places, pillars, sun-images , asherim , and put away the sodomites (male prostitutes) 1st King 15:9-24 As a descendant of King Solomon and King David he was one of the ancestors of Jesus. I Kings 15:9-24 ; Matthew 1:7-8 ; II Chronicles 14-16

ASAHEL -- A captain in David's army and a nephew I Chron 27:7 Abner, commander in Saul's army killed Asahel. II Sam 2:17-23

ASAIAH -- Helped David move the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem, A Levite I Chron 15:6 , 11

ASAPH -- Writer of psalms mentioned in the titles of Pss 50, 73-83 and a Levite choir leader.

ASCENSION OF CHRIST -- After His crucifixion and resurrection Jesus' return to His Father Luke 24:50-51 The Ascension occurred forty days after the Resurrection Acts 1:2-11 as foretold in the Old Testament Ps 68:18 The early believers were prompted with great joy because of this event. Luke 24:52-53 Christ will return as surely as He ascended to heaven to be with His father. Acts 1:11

ASCETICISM -- Nazarites practiced this strict self-discipline of denial of bodily appetites Num 6:1-21 John the Baptist being a Nazarite also practiced it Matt 3:4

ASENATH -- Denial of bodily and strict self-discipline, The Nazarites practiced Asceticism Num 6:1-21 John the Baptist practiced Asceticism Matt 3:4

ASHDOD -- The center of Dagon worship I Sam 5:1-7 and a major Philistine city Josh 13:3 In the New Testament time it was called Azotus Acts 8:40

ASHER/ASER -- Asher was Jacob's eighth son and gave his name to one of the twelve tribes of Israel and to the area where they lived. Genesis 30:13 ; 35:26 ; 46:17 ; 49:20

ASHES -- The residue that is left from burning something, A symbol of mourning and repentance, Also used for purification Heb 9:13

ASHTAROTH/ASHTORETH -- The Philistines and the Israelites soon after the death of Joshua worshiped this pagan fertility goddess Judg 2:13 A evergreen tree, a pole or a pillar near a pagan altar was her symbol. Ashtaroth, Ashtoreth, I Sam 7:4 ; I King 11:33 Plural forms

ASHIMA -- Foreign colonists who settled in Samaria after the fall of the Northern Kingdom to Assyria worshiped this false god. II Kings 17:30

ASHKELON/ASKELON -- One of Philistines major cities out of the five Judg 14:19 and a pagan center that the prophet Amos denounced. Amos 1:8 Askelon Judg 1:18

ASHKENAZ -- Through Japheth a descendant of Noah Gen 10:3

ASIA -- In western Asia Minor a Roman province which included the cities of Ephesus, Smyrna, and Pergamos. These are the first three cities mentioned in the book of Revelation Rev 1:11 ; 2:1-17 Paul was first forbidden by a vision to enter Asia Acts 16:6 Later he did extensive evangelistic work in this province and his message was well received by the people. Acts 19:10

ASNAPPER (ASHURBANIPAL, OSNAPPAR) -- As king he reigned from 668-626 BC and called the "great and noble" , Ezra 4:10 the last of the great kings. Asnapper required King Manasseh of Judah to pay tribute to him and to kiss his feet.

ASP -- It symbolic of man's evil nature, a deadly snake of the cobra variety Isa 11:8

ASS --A donkey; In the Bible times a common beast of burden Gen 22:3 To symbolize His humble servant hood and the spiritual nature of His kingdom Jesus rode a young donkey rather than a war horse. Luke 19:30-38

ASSEMBLY -- A congregation or gathering of people for worship. Moses assembled the Israelites at the door of the tabernacle by God's command. Num 10:2-3 The psalmist gathered with God's people for praise and worship Ps 111:1 For all Christians assembling for worship is enjoined. Heb 10:25

ASSHUR -- An ancestor of the Assyrians and a son of Shem Gen 10:22

ASSOS -- Paul passed through on his third missionary journey this seaport in Asia Minor in the gulf of Adramythium opposite of the island of Lesbos Acts 20:13-14

ASSURANCE -- Confidence completely in God's promises. Based on our adoption as God's children our spiritual security is based. Eph 1:4-5 Secure in the grip of the Father and Son are Believers. John 10:28-30 Love for one another as believers also provides assurance of eternal life I John 3:14 Answered prayers are assured by Obedient Christians I John 5:14-15 with victorious living Rom 8:18 , 37

ASSYRIA/ASSHUR/ASSUR -- In the ancient world from about 900 to 700 B.C. an ancient kingdom between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers which became the dominant power in the ancient world. The Assyrians were known for their cruelty in warfare, many times cutting off their victims' hands or heads , and impaling them on stakes. They were soundly condemned by the Old Testament prophets for their cruelty and pagan worship. Isa 10:5 ; Ezek 16:28 ; Hos 8:9

ASTROLOGER -- One in an attempt to foretell the future studied the stars. The practice was especially popular among the pagan Babylonians Isa 47:1

ASTROLOGY-- Especially of the five older planets, the supposed science which determines the influence of the stars on the fate of man.

ASTRONOMY-- Divided into two main brancehes, astrophysics and astrometry: the former concerned with investigation of their cheical and physical nature and the latter with the concerned with determinging the places of the investiation of the heavenly bodies.

ASTRONOMY IN THE BIBLE -- Includes examples of Old and New Testament references

ASYNCRITUS -- Paul in his letter to the Roman Christians greeted and commended this fellow believer at Rome. Rom 16:14

ATAVISM -- Duchesne introduced the word to designate those cases in which species revert to what are presumably spontaneously long-lost characters

ATHALIAH -- The only queen of Judah and daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. After the assassination of her son, King Ahaziah she seized the throne. One infant, Joash escaped when she attempted to kill all the male members of the royal family so none of them would be a threat to her. For six years Joash was hidden in the house of the Lord. Athaliah was taken out and slain by the captains of the army at his presentation and crowning. II Kings 8:26 , 11 ; II Chronicles 22 , 23

ATHANASIAN CREED -- Approved by the Church one of the symbols of the Faith and placed in her liturgy.

ATHANASIUS, SAINT -- Long article on the Bishop of Alexandria, Doctor and Confessor of the Church.

ATHEISM -- That system of thought which is formally opposed to theism, It is the belief or denial of God's existence. Exod 5:2 ; Ps 14:1 ; Unbelievers have no excuse of not knowing his intent for man. Rom 1:18-25

ATHENAGORAS -- Of the second century a Christian apologist of whom no more is known than he was an Athenian philosopher and a convert to Christianity.

ATHENS -- The capital city of ancient Greece where during the second missionary journey Paul debated with the philosophers about Christ and Christianity Athens was know as the center of Greek art, literature, politics, and idolatry. There were many shrines erected to numerous deities , including the unknown god Acts 17:23

ATHOS, MOUNT -- Architect Dinocrates offered to turn this mountain into a statue of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and in the other a perennially flowing spring

ATOM -- The smallest particle of matter known to exist

ATOMISM -- Of those who hold the system that all bodies are composed of minute, indivisible particles of matter called atoms

ATONEMENT -- In the Old Testament Reconciliation of God and man was through the sacrifice of an animal symbolic of the people's repentance. In the New Testament true reconciliation is now made possible by Christ atoning death and resurrection Rom 5:1 ; 5:11 ; Eph 1:7

ATONEMENT, DAY OF -- A most solemn fast, on which no food could be eaten throughout the day, and servile works were forbidden. Atonements were made for all Israel during this Jewish holy day (Yom Kippur) Lev 16:29-30 ; 23:27 Proceeded by special sabbath and fasting Lev 23:24 All of this recognized man's inability to make atonement for himself Heb 10: 1-10 It was on this day that the Jewish High Priest first made atonement for himself and then the people for their sins He would sprinkle the blood of a sacrificial animal on the altar Lev 16:12-15 Representing the sins of the people the scapegoat was released into the wilderness to symbolize pardon Lev 16:22-23

ATONEMENT, DOCTRINE OF THE -- The Atonement is the Satisfaction of Christ, whereby God and the world are reconciled or made to be one in Catholic theology

ATTALIA -- Paul sailed back to Antioch at the end of his first missionary journey from this seaport town of Pamphylia. Acts 14 25-26

AUGUSTUS -- It was bestowed upon the emperors of the Roman Empire as a title of honor, it meaning "his reverence" Luke 2:1

AVAA -- After the Northern Kingdom fell to Assyria it was an Assyrian city whose citizens were dispossessed and eliled Israelites 722 BC. settled in Samaria. II Kings 17:24-31

AVENGER OF BLOOD -- A slain person's closest of kin was to slay the slayer of the dead person. Cain feared his brother, Abe's avenging relatives for murdering Abel Gen 4:14 Throughout Israel six cities were established to provide a safe heaven for those who had accidentally taken a human life Num 35:12 Matt 5:43

AVVIM: Even before the Israelites came a prople who lived in the region of Gaza in Palensine. Seut 2:23 , Josh 13:3

AWL/AUL -- Carpenters and leather workers use this tool to punch holes Exod 21:6 ; Deut 15:17

AX -- A tool used for cutting wood Deut 19:5

AYIN -- (a-yeen') The 16th lett of the Hebrew alphrew


  • Azariah became the king of Judah at the age of sixteen and reigned for fifty-two years in Jerusalem. He is called Uzziah in II chronicles. The kingdom during his reign prospered, the fortification of Jerusalem were strengthened and agriculture prospered. He did that which was right in the sight of the Lord until he transgressed by entering the temple to burn incense  disregarding the warning of the priests, he became a leper. His son, Jotham, then governed the land. II Kings 14:21--15:6 ; II Chronicles 26.
  • After King Asa victory over the Ethiopians a prophet by the name of Azariah came out to meet the king. A great religious reform took place when Azariah encouraged Asa. II Chronicles 15:1-8
  • Azariah the high priest during the reign of King Solomon I Kings 4:2
  • During the reign of King Uzziah the chief priest was named Azariah. He denounced Uzziah for burning incense in the sanctuary in the front of eighty priests at which time Uzziah became a leper. II Chronicles 26:16-20
  • The Hebrew name for Azariah was Abednego. Daniel 1: 6 , 7 , 11 , 19 , : 2:17

AZOR -- (ay'-zor) According to hte genealogy of Matthew 1:13 and ancestor of Jesus.